IDTechEx Talk Smart Buildings: Another Frontier for the Digital Revolution
Updated: Dec 11, 2021
Take a look around your room. It is likely full of sophisticated digital technology: computers, smartphones, an internet-enabled TV, and even a smart speaker. However, many decades ago, the building itself had not changed since electrical wiring and central heating.
Smart buildings aim to bring digital technologies into the fabric of the building, rather than just to objects within it. They will utilise a wide range of emerging technologies, such as semi-transparent photovoltaics on windows, moisture sensors for leak detection, and printed heaters with wall panels.
Combined with changes to building construction, such as greater use of prefabricated panels with integrated electronic functionality, incorporating technologies such as these promises smart buildings that facilitate predictive maintenance, are more energy-efficient, and are responsive to occupants' needs.
Digital Leak Detection
Anyone who has had a water leak at home knows that it is incredibly annoying and expensive, with walls, ceilings, and flooring needing replacement. Furthermore, the affected area is out of action while everything is dried using boisterous fans and dehumidifiers. A technology that reduces the likelihood and severity of leaks would bring clear benefits to home and business owners, along with insurance companies.
Printed moisture sensors are a promising potential solution, which is integrated into walls and floors to detect leaks at a very early stage and alert the building owner. Targeting primarily at bathrooms, one such approach has been developed by the Swedish company InviSense. A printed RFID antenna coil is coated with a moisture-absorbing material, and the resonant frequency changes in response to moisture, which an RFID reader can then detect. While testing leaks behind tiling can be performed non-destructively, it does not provide continuous feedback.
UK company Laiier is developing an alternative approach to leak detection. It offers low-cost capacitive sensors made from carbon-based inks and produced using conventional graphics printers. The thin-film sensor format enables them to be placed underneath appliances such as dishwashers, washing machines, boilers, and pipes, or even under flooring or within walls. The sensors are connected to the cloud and can provide the property owner with an alert when an increase in moisture is detected, enabling repairs to be performed before a leak becomes significant.
Integrated Heating, Lighting, and Wiring
Housebuilding techniques have not changed substantially in many years, with most houses still being constructed on-site using conventional building materials. Plumbing and electricity are installed during the construction process, requiring skilled manual labour. While most cars have been produced on a production line with extensive automation for many years, houses are still essentially handcrafted.
There is thus an excellent opportunity to simultaneously reduce construction costs and provide additional value to the building's occupants by integrating functionality into building materials. Promising examples include incorporating electrical heaters into wall panels, thus removing the need for unsightly free-standing radiators. Electrical switches, wiring, lighting, and other sensor types could also be installed into wall panels before installation, reducing the need for individual fixings that increase costs and create visual clutter.